hello dears!here in this short tut we will be learning the horizontal distance determination by leveling machine, theodolite,tachometeror any other instrument with which we can use graduated staff rod.this video will provide basic formula by which we can get our approach so easily.and the formula we will use for this approach is given below.H.D = ( upper hair reading – lower hair reading) constanthere h.D = horizontal distanceupper hair reading , lower hair reading and the constant detail is in lecture..lets watch the lecture to know better how can we apply the above formula for horizontal distance determination.thank you dears for watching……………