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Watch In the Muslim world today, most of the focus on the relation between Islam and science involves scientific interpretations of the Quran (and sometimes the Sunna) that claim to show that the sources make prescient statements about the nature of the universe, biological development and other phenomena later confirmed by scientific research, thus demonstrating proof of the divine origin of the Quran (and sometimes the Sunna). Although this issue received widespread support by some, it has been criticized by certain scientists as containing logical fallacies, being unscientific, likely to be contradicted by evolving scientific theories.
In the Muslim world, many believe that modern science was first developed in the Muslim world rather than in Europe and Western countries, that all the wealth of knowledge in the world has actually emanated from Muslim civilization, and what people call the scientific method, is actually the Islamic method. Muslims often cite verse 239 from Surah Al-Baqara —- He has taught you what you did not know.  —- in support of their view that the Quran promotes the acquisition of new knowledge. Theoretical physicist Jim Al-Khalili believes the modern scientific method was pioneered by Ibn Al-Haytham (known in the Western world as Alhazen), whose contributions he likened to those of Isaac Newton. Robert Briffault, in The Making of Humanity, asserts that the very existence of science, as it is understood in the modern sense, is rooted in the scientific thought and knowledge that emerged in Islamic civilizations during this time.
In contrast, some people worry that the contemporary Muslim world suffers from a profound lack of scientific understanding, and lament that, for example, in countries like Pakistan post-graduate physics students have been known to blame earthquakes on sinfulness, moral laxity, deviation from the Islamic true path, while only a couple of muffled voices supported the scientific view that earthquakes are a natural phenomenon unaffected by human activity.
As with all other branches of human knowledge, science, from an Islamic standpoint, is the study of nature as stemming from Tawhid, the Islamic conception of the Oneness of God.[page needed] In Islam, nature is not seen as something separate but as an integral part of a holistic outlook on God, humanity, the world and the cosmos. These links imply a sacred aspect to Muslims pursuit of scientific knowledge, as nature itself is viewed in the Quran as a compilation of signs pointing to the Divine.[page needed] It was with this understanding that the pursuit of science, especially prior to the colonization of the Muslim world, was respected in Islamic civilizations.[page needed]
Muslim scientists and scholars have subsequently developed a spectrum of viewpoints on the place of scientific learning within the context of Islam, none of which are universally accepted. However, most maintain the view that the acquisition of knowledge and scientific pursuit in general is not in disaccord with Islamic thought and religious belief.